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Andrology Services

Our variety of available andrology services are as follows :

SA : Semen Analysis

a combination of procedures that the semen is assessed qualitatively and quantitatively such as sperm concentration, morphology, motility and vitality.

IUI : Intrauterine Insemination

the introduction of specially prepared sperm into the uterus through the cervix.

The husband's sperm are prepared in the IVF laboratory to improve its quality.

IUI can be successfully used to treat many causes of infertility in women under the age of 45 years.

However, IUI cannot treat women who have either blocked tubes or ovarian failure (menopause) and men who have severe male factor infertility e.g. azoospermia or severely low sperm count, motility or vitality.

Sperm Cryo-preservation

the freezing of sperm in liquid nitrogen for the purpose of storage for future use in IVF.

HBA : Hyaluronidase Binding Assay

a qualitative assay for the maturity of sperm in a fresh semen sample. It is intended to provide additional information to professionals for the evaluation of an infertile couple. It is not intended to be a single diagnostic indicator of potential fertility. The assay is based on the ability of mature, but not immature, sperm to bind hyaluronan, the main mucopolysaccharide of the cumulus oophorus matrix and a component of human follicular fluid. -- courtesy of Biocoat, Inc.

The meaning of Azoospermia

the absence of sperm in ejaculated semen, is the most severe form of male factor infertility and is present in approximately 5% of all investigated infertile couples.

The condition is currently classified as "obstructive" or "non-obstructive", although it is important to also consider the specific aetiology of each individual case.

Some cases of obstructive azoospermia are treatable using microsurgical reconstruction of the seminal tract (for example, vasectomy reversal).

Unreconstructable obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia have historically been relatively untreatable conditions that required the use of donor spermatozoa for fertilisation.

The advent of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), however, has transformed treatment of this type of severe male factor infertility.

Sperm can be retrieved for ICSI from either the epididymis ( MESA ) or the testis (TESE) depending on the type of azoospermia.

TESE : Testicular Extraction

a sperm retrieval procedure from testicular tissues.

A few pieces of testicular tissues usually measuring about 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm are taken.

These tissues are then cut into fine pieces in an enriched culture medium to allow a suspension to form.

The testicular suspension is kept in cryo-vials which are then frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196 o C.

TESE is generally recommended for men who have azoospermia because of defective spermatogenesis.


MESA : Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration

a sperm retrieval procedure from the epididymis.

Surgical intervention is necessary.

A needle and syringe are inserted into the epididymis to aspirate the sperm.

The epididymal sperm can either be used for ICSI immediately or cryo-preserved for future inseminations.

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Copyright © 2005 EMBRYONICS International Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. Last update: November, 2005